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Age-scaled diagram of chrono-cultural periods, human occupation phases, coprophilous fungus spores, carbonized particles, ash content, E(Tn) and main climatic variations (from Dahl-Jensen et al., 1998; Mann, 2002a, 2002b; Le Roy Ladurie, 2009; Beck, 2011; Wang et al., 2012; Bradley and Bakke 2019). a: Medieval Little Ice Age, b: Medieval Warm Epoch; c: climate deterioration in Alsace and Lorraine; d: Roman Little Ice Age; e: Roman Warm Period; f: “Hallstatt disaster”; g: climatic optimum of Bronze Age; h: “4.2ka event”; i: onset of Neoglaciation; j: Holocene Climate Optimum.
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