Table 3

Synthesis of human occupation phases (HOP) and abandonment phases (AP) since the Iron Age; CFS: coprophilic fungus spores; CP: carbonized particles.

Phases Dates (cal. BP) Paleoecological evidence

Chrono-cultural period Main human activities
HOP9 235-44 Crops, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, Plantago major/media, Urticaceae, Anthemideae, Cichorioideae, Plantago lanceolata, Rumex, CFS
Modern period Agropastoral activities
AP5 360-235 Decrease in anthropogenic pressure
Modern period
HOP8 480-360 Crops, Artemisia, Centaurea cyanus, Chenopodiaceae, Papaver, Plantago major/media, Centaurea jacea, Anthemideae, Cichorioideae, Plantago lanceolata, Rumex, CFS
Late Middle Ages/Modern period Agropastoral activities
AP4 570-480 Decrease in anthropogenic pressure
Late Middle Ages
HOP7 950-570 Crops, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, Urticaceae, Plantago lanceolata, Rumex, Calluna, Centaurea cyanus, Anthemideae, Cichorioideae
High Middle Ages, Late Middle Ages Agropastoral activities
PA3 1160-950 Abandonment
Early Middle Ages
POH6 1280-1160 Crops, CFS, CP
Early Middle Ages Cultures of crops and livestock farming
PA2 1410-1280 Abandonment
Early Middle Ages
POH5 1565-1410 Plantago lanceolata, Rumex, CFS
Gallo-Roman period/Early Middle Ages Pastoral activities
POH4 1935-1565 crops, CP
Gallo-Roman period Culture of crops
POH3 2150-1935 Anthemideae, Cichorioideae, Rumex, Calluna, CFS
Iron Age/Gallo-Roman period Pastoral activities
PA1 2350-2150 Abandonment
Iron Age
POH2 2600-2350 crops, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, CP, Calluna
Iron Age Culture of crops
POH1 2800-2600 crops, Artemisia, Plantago lanceolata, Rumex, CFS, CP
Bronze Age/Iron Age Agropastoral activities

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