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Synthetic schematic cross-sections illustrating the three main modes of deformation of convergent continental lithospheres. (a) Modern-type tectonics involving stiff lithospheres where compression induces localised strains with crustal-scale thrusts and extensional detachments. The section makes particular reference to the India-Eurasia collision belt (from Gapais et al., 1992, 2009 and Indepth profile, Nelson et al., 1996). MCT, Main Central Thrust; ZD-STD, Zanskar Detachment and South-Tibet-Detachment; IZSZ, Indus-Zangbo Suture Zone; HHC, High Himalayan Crystalline. Combined thrusting and normal shearing leads to the exhumation of the Higher Himalaya Crystalline (Gapais et al., 1992). Exhumation of eclogites, such as the Tso Morari eclogites (western Himalaya), is associated with crustal scale normal shearing (De Sigoyer et al., 2000, 2004). (b) General pattern of gravity-driven deformation models for Archaean tectonics, that generally involve combined rising of hot and partially melted crust (diapirism) and sinking of heavy mafic greenstone belts (sagduction). Drawing after Collins and Van Kranendonk (1998), and Chardon et al. (1998). (c) General tectonic model combining thickening and horizontal flow of a hot continental lithosphere in a compressive setting, with burial of light supracrustals within soft crust along vertical deformation zones (from Gapais et al., 2005, Gapais et al., 2008, 2009; Chardon et al., 2009). See text for further explanations.
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