Open Access

Table 1

Potential terrestrial impact structures, proposed in literature before Kaljuvee’s and Reinwald’s works.

Author and year of the proposal [selected supporting literature] Geographic location Comment
Halley (1724, p. 122; presented orally in 1694) Caspian Sea (and other great lake basins) Placed in theological-catastrophic setting (“Such a choc [of a comet] may have occasioned that vast depression of the Caspian Sea, and other great lakes in the World”)
Gruithuisen (1844, 1845) Aleutian Islands, Kuril Islands, Bohemia, Japanese Islands – Korea, Australia, Sunda Islands, Ceylon, Galapagos Islands; Cape Mt, South Africa Based on hypothesis of Kant (1785) and Élie de Beaumont (1831) who suggested a similarity of Bohemia and Ceylon, respectively, to lunar circular/mountain volcanic structures (“ring-mountain arcs”)
Meydenbauer (1890) Aleutian Islands, Lesser Antilles; northern Coast Mts, Venezuela; Kuril Islands; Japanese Islands – Korea; Ludschu Islands, China; Mykonos and other Greek islands; Black Sea; Caspian Sea; western Mediterranean Sea; New Guinea, Marianne, Sunda and other Pacific islands; China-Tibet boundary region Approach similar to Gruithuisen’s, but without credit to him
Werner (1904) Ries Basina, Bavaria, Germany Guided by the similarity to lunar craters (“cannot fend off the impression that the catastrophe broke into the area suddenly and as if from outside”; see Kölbl-Ebert 2015, p. 28)
Barringer (1905) and Tilghman (1905) [Munk (1905), Fairchild (1907), Merrill (1908), Barringer, 1909] Coon Butte (or Canyon Diablo crater)a, Arizona, USA Missing volcanism; rich meteoritic iron around the crater; highly disturbed and crushed rocks in the crater rim, and undisturbed succession in the substratum
Meydenbauer (1906) Ries Basina; Neuwieder Basin, Koblenz; Westerwald, Höhr-Grenzhausen; Bolesławiec (Bunzlau), Silesia; Trzebnickie Hills (Katzengebirge), Silesia Disturbed succession of reference lithostratigraphical units (white clays, biosiliceous rocks)
Meydenbauer (1906) Prieska, Northern Cape Province, South Africa (also presumably e.g., Deccan Traps) Reference to Meteor Crater and lava floods triggered by cosmic collisions on the Moon surface
Högbom (1910) Mien and Dellen lakesa, Sweden Overall reference to Meteor Crater in abstract only
Kalkun-Kaljuvee (1922, 1933; orally in Kaljuvee, 1919), Reinvaldt-Reinwald (1928, 1940), Kraus et al. (1928) [Ingalls (1928), Kranz (1937)] Kaali lakea; Estonian island of Saaremaa [Ries cratera, and also several other giant impact sites proposed by Kaljuvee, 1933, such as Mediterrean Sea and Hungarian Plain] In-depth discussion referenced to Meteor Crater in 1928 and 1933 papers

Year of the first proposal is bolded.


proved later as real impact structure.

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